Construction & Building Materials

Thickness Inspection

Thickness Inspection

The requirement for accurate thickness measurements is found across many industries including aerospace, oil and gas, pharmaceutical and food processing.  Either for quality control in manufacturing or in-service verification often access is only available from one side and speed is critical.  The wall thickness from most materials can be measured ultrasonically including metals, composites, plastics and glass using a simple hand-held digital gauge.

In certain environments, a coating of paint or other non-metallic material may have been applied to protect the part.  A common application would be a painted pipe used in the petrochemical industry.  In this case a conventional ultrasonic gauge would give measurement errors from the presence of the paint.  However, with the correct gauge with through paint mode, measurement through the paint is possible resulting in the correct wall thickness measurement underneath.

NDT Systems offers a range of standard and high-resolution thickness gauges with features including A-trace display, B-scan, automatic probe recognition, data logging and much more. Furthermore, large area thickness mapping (C-scan) can be achieved using our Raptor imaging flaw detector and range of scanners.

Transducer (Probe) Type

Contact transducer – probes which transmit a pulse of compressional sound into the specimen at the right angles (normal) to its surface. It is the most common used transducer type for thickness measurement.

Delay Line transducer – in order to facilitate the complete inspection of thin plate sections it is necessary to eliminate the effect of the probe units dead zone and the earlier part of its near filed in which those areas of the interfering sound pressures exist. A normal angle probe is mounted on a plastic, epoxy or fused silica known as a delay block between probe element and test specimen

Immersion transducer – special waterproofed probes used in immersion testing which allow thinner and higher frequency crystals without face wear plates can be used with less chance of damage caused by probe handling encountered during contact scanning

Dual Element (Twin Crystal) transducer – comprises two crystals act as transmitter and receiver respectively which gives good sensitivity to near surface defects and measurement.


  • Metals
  • Plastics
  • Composites
  • Glass
  • Fiberglass
  • Ceramics

Typical Applications

  • Turbine blade thickness
  • Corrosion & pitting
  • Boilers Glass
  • Storage tanks
  • Pipes and tubing
  • Metal sheet processing
  • Aerospace & automotive manufacture
  • Investment Castings
  • Chemical milling

Building Structural Testing System

Structural testing is an integral part of the modern construction industry, whether it be proving individual components or materials are fit for purpose or load testing novel or existing structures.

Building Structural Testing System

Modular Components for Civil Engineering Test Applications

Modular Components for Civil Engineering

Create tightly integrated yet cost-efficient civil structural and component test stands that can be easily reconfigured to meet evolving requirements. Precision-engineered to the highest quality and designed for seamless integration, test system components are the same as those used in the most advanced custom rigs.


Performance, Durability, Bend, Dynamic Testing, Quasi-static

Test Specimens: 

Civil Structures, Substructures, Structural Components, Building Materials

Multi-Axial Subassemblage Test System (MAST)

Conduct high-force, six degree-of-freedom (6DOF) quasi-static and dynamic testing of beam-column frame systems, walls, bridge piers, abutments and more to the point of failure in controlled laboratory settings. This high-capacity test system provides researchers the data needed to improve design codes and develop next generation building materials, components and structures.


Quasi-static, Dynamic Testing, Seismic Simulation, Time-History Simulation

Test Specimens: 

Substructures, Components, Building Materials, Civil Structures, Sub-Assemblies

Multi-Axial Subassemblage Test System (MAST)

Compression Testing of Construction Building Materials

Compression Testing of Construction Materials

Compression is a fundamental type of test used to characterize building materials in construction industry. Static compression tests apply an escalating compressive load until failure or apply a specific load and hold it for a certain period. Dynamic compression tests involve cycling between two (or more) load conditions. Depending on the nature of the specimen, compression tests can help determine the material’s ultimate yield strength, service life or other critical performance characteristics.

Our complete solutions for building materials compression test include:

  • Highly stiff, floor-standing servo hydraulic load frames for a range of force requirements
  • Tabletop and floor-standing electromechanical load frames for varying force requirements
  • Intuitive, versatile and user-friendly software with powerful test design capabilities
  • Digital controllers with high channel density, high capacity and superior configurability
  • Broad selection of fixturing (platens) to accommodate different type specimen types

Test Standard:

BS EN 12390-3, BS EN 12504-1, BS EN 196-1, BS EN 12190, BS EN 12808-3, BS EN 1015-11, BS EN 480-1, BS EN 772-1, BS 1377-7, BS 4551-1, BS 6717-1,  ASTM C109, ASTM C942, ASTM C349, ASTM C579, ASTM C1693-11, ASTM C170, ASTM D1633, SS 103

Fire Performance of Building Elements

The performance of walls, columns, floors and other building elements when exposed to fire conditions is of extreme importance in insuring safety to both the public and neighbouring structures. In order to acquire information on this performance, it is necessary to measure the fire-resistive properties of the materials and assemblies.

Fire Resistance Test Furnace for Vertical and Horizontal Test Specimens is the apparatus needed to evaluate the fire resistance of a horizontal or vertical construction assembly, column, or support, and provides a method of quantifying the ability of products such as doors and dampers, and building materials to withstand exposure to high temperatures. This is done by evaluating a number of performance elements such as; the load-bearing capacity, the ability to provide fire containment and the thermal transmittance of the materials and systems.

Building elements commonly tested include:

Fire Doors, Load Bearing Panel, Walls, Ventilation Ducts, Columns, Cable Barriers, Partitions. Dampers

Type of Furnaces:

  • Large Horizontal Scale Fire Resistance Test Furnace
  • Large Vertical Scale Fire Resistance Test Furnace
  • Hydraulic Tilting Fire Resistance Test Furnace
  • Indicative Fire Resistance Test Furnace
  • Miniature Fire Resistance Test Furnace

Test Standard:

ISO 834 (1,4,8) – BS 476 (20 – 22) – BS EN 1363 (1-2) – BS EN 1364 (1) – BS EN 1365 (1) – BS EN 1366 (1-3) – BS EN 1634 -1 – ASTM E 119 – ASTM E 814 – UL 10 (B-C) – UL 263 – UL 1709 – UL 1479 – UL 2079 – ISO 3008 – ISO 3009

Fire Performance of Building Elements

Non-Combustibility of Building Products

Non-Combustibility of Building Products

Non­-Combustibility Apparatus determines the non-combustibility performance, under specific conditions, of homogenous products and substantial components of non­homogeneous building products. This test is part of the requirements of the construction products regulation classification of reaction to fire performance for wall lining and roofing products and floorcoverings.

EN ISO 1182 Regulation classification criteria for all building products, has performance classes from A­F. Although another test is required for assessment, the non-combustibility apparatus is needed for qualifying all types of construction products to the highest performance criteria – A1 and A1fl (non-combustible). The classification criteria is shown in the table below. This principally applies to non­organic materials.

The classification criteria is shown in the table below. This principally applies to non­-organic materials.

Classification for construction products excluding floorings
A1, A1fl EN ISO 1182 ΔT ≥ 30°C: and Δm ≥ 50%; and tf = 0 (i.e. no sustained flaming) EN ISO 1716

Measuring Heat of Combustion (Calorific Value)

The bomb calorimeter is the most common device for measuring the heat of combustion or calorific value of a material. With this apparatus a test specimen of specified mass is burned under standardized conditions.

The heat of combustion determined under these conditions is calculated based on the observed temperature rise while taking account of heat loss. The combustion process is initiated inside an atmosphere of oxygen in a constant volume container, the bomb, which is a vessel built to withstand high pressures. It is immersed in a stirred water bath, and the whole device is the calorimeter vessel. The calorimeter vessel is also immersed in an outer water bath. The water temperature in the calorimeter vessel and that of the outer bath are both monitored.

The Oxygen Bomb Calorimeter can be used to measure the heat generated from several applications and has been designed to conform to current ASTM, ISO, EN, BS and DIN international standards.

The calorific value of the following groups of materials can be measured:

  • Building materials (EN ISO 1716)
  • Coal, coke (ASTM D5865)
  • Fuel (ASTM D240: gasoline, kerosene, fuel oil, Nos. 1D and 2D diesel fuel and Nos. 0GT, 1GT, and 2GT gas turbines fuels and ISO 1928)
  • Fuel derived from waste material (ASTM E711)
  • Hydrocarbon fuels (ASTM D4809)
  • Food, supplements, crops
  • Waste and refuse

Measuring Heat of Combustion

Fire Behaviour of Building Products

Fire Behaviour of Building Products

Most construction products need to be tested and classified using a new test method called the Single Burning Item (the SBI) EN 13823. The construction products directive of the European commission will require that all European Member states eventually use this, instead of the traditional regulatory methods used in each country, to classify most building products.

The Commission recently defined the criteria for assessing building products into classes A-F. These are given in the table below. Though other test methods are required the SBI is needed to classify all non flooring products into the classes A2, B, C and D which are the major classes inhabited by most products other than those that are principally inorganic classified as non-combustible.

The Single Burning Item (SBI), is a method of test for determining the reaction to fire behaviour of building products (excluding floorings) when exposed to the thermal attack by a single burning item (a sand-box burner supplied with propane). The specimen is mounted on a trolley that is positioned in a frame beneath an exhaust system. The reaction of the specimen to the burner is monitored instrumentally and visually. Heat and smoke release rates are measured instrumentally, and physical characteristics are assessed by observation

How is the SBI used to classify combustion products?


Class Criteria for compliance Other classification Other test method(s)
A2 FIGRA ≤ 120W/s;
and LFS < edge of specimen;
and THR600s ≤ 7.5MJ
Smoke production
Flaming droplets / particles
EN ISO 1182 or EN ISO 1716
B FIGRA ≤ 120W/s;
and LFS < edge of specimen;
and THR600s ≤ 7.5MJ
Smoke production
Flaming droplets / particles
EN ISO 11925-2
C FIGRA ≤ 120W/s;
and LFS < edge of specimen;
and THR600s ≤ 15MJ
Smoke production
Flaming droplets / particles
EN ISO 11925-2
D FIGRA < 750W/s EN ISO 11925-2



Laboratories used for scientific research nursing Implications.


Laboratories used for scientific research nursing Implications.

Scientific research

Laboratories used for scientific research nursing Implications.

LabtechCO is a medical testing laboratory service that offers a complete range of tests for diagnosis, screening or evaluation.


LabtechCO is a medical testing laboratory service that offers a complete range of tests for diagnosis, screening or evaluation.


LabtechCO is a medical testing laboratory service that offers a complete range of tests for diagnosis, screening or evaluation.